Bush pressured Nepal Email List Mubarak to democratize his country and the Egyptian dictator replied that if he did so, “the Muslim Brotherhood would triumph”;5). Also, for decades, strongmen in the region had had the cunning to channel public Nepal Email List frustration towards external rivals (the West, the US , Israel, etc.), with the intention of escaping popular scrutiny. However, unexpectedly, the “manual” stopped working in 2010-2011, and for the Nepal Email List first time since its independence, the populations of the Middle East focused their discontent on their own regimes and leaders. Regardless of the best explanation for the causes of such resilient Nepal Email List authoritarianism in the Middle East, the.
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Arab Spring Nepal Email List shattered the illusion of invulnerability of indigenous dictators and everything changed on January 14 of that year, when the Tunisians overthrew President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. Although the protests spread and crossed Nepal Email List , in one way or another, most of the 22 nations that make up the Arab world, the five most affected by the domino effect at that time were all republics (and not monarchies): Tunisia, Egypt , Nepal Email List Libya, Before Tunisia and since the independence of the Middle Eastern countries from the European powers, there had been no successful examples Nepal Email List of popular revolts.
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The closest Nepal Email List a mass movement came to overthrowing a dictatorial system was in 1991, when the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front ( fis) prevailed in the elections, which marked the first time that an opposition party had beaten the Nepal Email List one that exercised the control of the state apparatus. A short time later, with support from Europe and USA , as well as major countries in the region, the military annulled the election, Nepal Email List outlawed the fis and began a bloody crackdown that sent thousands of Islamists ‘gulags’ in the Nepal Email List wilderness of the Sahara.